Actinic keratosis is a precancerous growth on the skin that marks the earliest stage in the development of skin cancer. It appears as a dry, scaly, rough patch on the skin after continuous exposure to sunlight. Sometimes this lesion resembles an animal horn and it is called “cutaneous horn.” It usually forms on the face, scalp, back of the hands, or chest and often affects people with fair complexions.
If left untreated, actinic keratosis may progress to squamous cell carcinoma. It is important to consult a dermatologist if you suspect actinic keratosis.
There are several treatment options approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis. Your dermatologist will evaluate and decide which treatment is best for you. Some of the techniques are listed below:
In this procedure, liquid nitrogen, is applied to the lesion. This causes freezing of the surface skin leading to peeling of the lesion.
One or more chemical solutions are applied to the skin,causing the precancerous lesions in the top layer to peel off..Topical prescription preparations
Diclofenac Sodium This is a topical medication applied over the lesion or larger area twice a day for 3 months.
This is an immunomodulator drug which acts by modifying the immune system to reject the UV-damaged cells in the skin.. Depending on the strength of the cream, there are various treatment regimens from 4-16 weeks.
5-Fluorouracil 5-FU is a topical chemotherapy agent that is applied twice daily for 2 to 4 weeks. This agent destroys the actinic keratosis cells, leading to initial irritation followed by clearance of the precancerous lesions.
Photodynamic Therapy A topical medication such as 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is applied to the lesion for 1-2 hours following which the area is subjected to radiation from a blue light source.
Considering the fact that actinic keratosis develops because of chronic exposure of skin to sunlight, the best way to prevent is to protect your skin from the harmful sun rays.